Abstract:In this paper, the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is introduced to implement channel multipath clustering. The GMM incorporates the covariance structure and the mean information of the channel multipaths, thus it can effectively reveal the similarity of the channel multipaths. First, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is utilized to search for the posterior estimation of the GMM parameters. Then, the variational Bayesian (VB) algorithm is employed to optimize the GMM parameters to enhance the searching ability of EM and further to determine the optimal number of Gaussian distributions without resorting to cross-validation. Finally, a compact index (CI) is proposed to validate the clustering results reasonably. Thanks to the proposed CI, it is possible to find a close relationship among the GMM clustering mechanism, the multipath propagation characteristics and the CI evaluation index. Experiments with synthetic data and outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) channel data are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.